This joint report of the Endocrine Society and IPEN provides the current best knowledge about the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health. It discusses chemicals known to be hazardous to human health yet actively used in plastics, exposures, the problem of microplastics, and the issues surrounding alternative plastics.
Analysis of chlorpyrifos production and use in Russia has shown widespread use of highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs), including Chlorpyrifos, Bifenthrin and Cypermethrin. These substances are on the list of HHPs prepared by the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) and meet the HHP criteria adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Kazakhstan does not produce chlorpyrifos but buys it as an active ingredient to make pesticide products for local use. IPEN member Greenwomen in the Republic of Kazakhstan found information showing that Astana Nan, the largest pesticide production plant in the country, purchases chlorpyrifos as an ingredient from China to use for manufacturing local pesticide products. There are also a number of small local enterprises in Kazakhstan that manufacture ready-made pesticide products containing chlorpyrifos.
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide that has been used since 1970 and non-officially licensed for distribution since 1970 in Indonesia. It is used in agriculture, plantations, household, hygiene and sanitation. Chlorpyrifos is widely used similar to other types of pesticides permitted for circulation and trade in the country. In 2021, the Pesticide Commission of the Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture allowed sixty (60) trademarks for use in agriculture and other sectors. This number continues to increase from 8 brand names (1998) to 60 brands (2021).
Agriculture in India was traditionally non-mechanised and organic, that is, conducted without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. These traditional practices persisted in most of India through the 1950s and for much of the 1960s, until the introduction of high yield varieties, popularly known as the Green Revolution. However, the introduction of high yield varieties resulted in the paramount increase in the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The total pesticide consumption in India grew nearly tenfold in the two decades between 1958 and 1978.
Agriculture in Ethiopia is the foundation of the country's economy. It is estimated that 85% of the 120 million people in Ethiopia are engaged in agriculture. In an effort to increase production and productivity, the agricultural sector uses inputs like pesticides and fertilizers as driving forces. Input use and distribution is mainly conducted through agricultural development agents who are working at the grassroots level with smallholder farmers.
The report provides information on the import of chlorpyrifos and its use in pest control crops in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan's developed agrarian economy ranks first in the non-oil sector. Highly hazardous pesticides, including chlorpyrifos, have been imported into the country since 2014, and since then, Azerbaijan has imported about 75,000 tons of chlorpyrifos.
Agriculture is one of the key contributors to the Armenian economy and the main source of employment. It accounted for about 13.94% of GDP in 2018. The steady decline in GDP in agriculture since 2017 in the overall structure of Armenia's gross product in 2021 reached 10.2%.
The decline in agriculture is partly due to the difficult epidemic situation of COVID-19 throughout the country and the involvement of Armenia in hostilities in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict zone and a number of territories of Armenia in 2020-2021 were affected.
IPEN has engaged in the science-to-policy (Science-Policy) discussions under the BRS and Minamata Conventions, SAICM, and the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) for many years. In March 2022, UNEA adopted a resolution calling for the establishment of a new Science-Policy Panel to support action on chemicals, waste, and pollution.