Following the emergence of COVID-19, the President of Mozambique, Hon. Filipe Nyusi, declared a state of emergency on 1st April 2020. He announced a number of measures to contain its spread, including prohibition of public and private gatherings and closure of all external leisure and entertainment establishments, schools, and borders to neighbouring countries, among others. He also put in place financial measures to support the private sector to face the economic impact of the pandemic. The emergency was extended until the end of 2020, when this report was being prepared.
Highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) are a threat to human health and the environment, with significant impacts on developing and transition countries. In 2005, more than 100 governments at the Fourth International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM4) agreed that HHPs are an issue of global concern and reached a consensus resolution to give priority to promoting agro-ecological alternatives in the process of implementing the strategy on HHPs developed by FAO-UNEP-WHO.
This report is an assessment of the non-chemical pest management approaches used by smallholder vegetable farmers in the Lake Victoria region. The report documents the challenges faced by farmers practicing such approaches, as well as the general challenges facing adoption of agro-ecology in the region. The study was conducted as a case study in the counties of Siaya and Migori in the Lake Victoria region, south western Kenya. Information used in this report was gathered through literature review, interviews, field visits, and photography.
Under the situation of movement restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria, there was the likelihood of increased generation of solid waste as a result of increased consumption, with increased accumulation due to working from homes and surges in household waste due to increased online shopping. New kinds of wastes, such as used face masks and hand gloves, empty hand sanitizer containers and other plastic materials, have also been introduced into the environment, and such wastes have become somewhat ubiquitous, with fly-tipping (illegal dumping) and improper disposal.
Both the African environment and the human health of Africans suffer from toxic chemicals and imported wastes more than in developed countries. Africa has become the destination of illegal toxic waste exports and, as this study shows, toxic chemicals are also present in toys, kitchen utensils, and other consumer products sold at African markets.
Two hundred and forty-four samples of toys and other consumer products made of black plastic, from seven countries, were sampled for this study. Samples from Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Morocco, Tanzania, and Tunisia were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and one-fifth of all 244 samples were sent for special chemical analysis, based on the total content of bromine and antimony, because bromine and antimony content is an indication that black plastic may contain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (Petreas, Gill et al. 2016).
For its March 2021 newsletter, the International Environmental Communication Association (IECA) interviewed IPEN Co-Chair Tadesse Amera about his role as an environmental communicator, why he wanted to do this work, and the challenges he has faced. In addition to his role with IPEN, Dr. Amera is a co-founder and current executive director of PAN Ethiopia, which works to advance principles of safety and sustainability in agriculture. The IECA newsletter was edited by Shirley Ho and Hanna Morris and is presented here in its entirety.
IECA: Was there a significant life experience that helped shape your attitude toward the environment? If so, what was it?
Amera: In a small town at the northwestern part of Ethiopia, I followed what my friends used to do routinely. Studying inside a small forest at the periphery of the town together with closest friends, swimming in a small river and drinking water from a natural spring that flows all year round remains at the top of my childhood memory.