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A Toxics-Free Future



Production and use of highly hazardous pesticides in Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan- trends and perspectives for transition to safe alternatives

May, 2020. First-of-their-kind comprehensive studies on the production and use of highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) in Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan have been carried out and show an increasing trend in the use of highly hazardous chemical plant protection products in these countries. 

The overall objective of this project was to reveal the ongoing proliferation of DDT pollution in manufacturing and use and cite important non-chemical alternatives to increase pressure for acting on this ongoing use in Mozambique, one of the countries that have registered an acceptable purpose for DDT use within the Stockholm Convention.

As of 2010, 65% of Zambia's population was engaged in agriculture. 96% of this farming population is represented by small scale farmers and 4% by commercial farmers. Agriculture has been identified as the number one key driver of the economy. Unfortunately, though highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) are used within the agriculture sector, there is currently no official data on the volume of HHPs used. This report explores this point and others in a quest to get an overall picture of the use of HHPs and alternatives in Zambia.

A study carried out by ABRASCO, the Brazilian Association of Collective Health, executed by researchers from the Oswaldo Cruz foundation and the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, finds that the Brzailian government provides companies that manufacture and sell pesticides tax exemptions and reductions adding up to nearly R$10 billion (US$ 2.2 billion) every year, in addition to other, less tangible protections. This lost revenue amounts to nearly four times the Ministry of the Environment’s total budget in 2019 (R$2.7 billion, or US$ 600 milllion) and more than double what the nation’s national health system [SUS] spent to treat cancer patients in 2017 (R$4.7 billion, or US$ 1 billion), according to journalists and Repórter Brasil and Agência Pública writing about the study.

“Our study clearly showed that it’s time for society to begin to reflect on subsidies for pesticides. First, because we are in the middle of a fiscal crisis in which many sectors are re-evaluating subsidies. But mostly because of the high amount the State is unable to levy,” affirms study coauthor, Wagner Soares, economist and graduate level professor in the Sustainable Development Practices program at UFRRJ.

This report gives an overview of the current situation of highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) in Mozambique and describes the process, methodology and recommendations to develop a national strategy plan on HHPs. It was based on institutional and stakeholder’s engagement; consultation with community-based farmers and agrochemical suppliers; reports; workshops; data collection and field work survey.

This report relates to Sustainable Development Goals 2, 3, 6, 8, 12, 13, 14 and 15.

Agriculture in Ethiopia is the foundation of the country's economy. In an effort to increase production and productivity, the agriculture sector puts the use of inputs like pesticides and fertilizers as driving forces. The use of these inputs was introduced to smallholder farmers in the 1960s through agricultural extension systems. Since then, the use of pesticides by smallholder farmers showed a steady growth. Currently, special emphasis given to agriculture investment and the development of the flower sector contributes a lot to the import and use of pesticides.